Archive for August, 2013

Colin England on Saruk Rugs, from Arak

Posted in Uncategorized on August 20, 2013 by rjohn

On May 4, 2013, Colin England

Colin1gave a Rug and Textiles Appreciation Morning  program on

1ppr

Colin is a long-time, DC area collector of “city” rugs, primarily in silk.  He is a former member of the Textile Museum’s Advisory Council, and has presented RTAM sessions a number of times previously.  In his professional life, Colin is an actuary.

He began by placing the Arak area, geographically, in Iran.

Map of Iran comp

Above is a compehensive map of Iran.  Arak is in its northwest quarter, as indicated in the map below.

Arak Map Detail

If you look closely at the upper, left central part of the map below, you can find a village named Saruk (spelled Saruq) from which the rugs called “Saruk” take their name.

ArakMapTownsandVillage

In fact, many of the rugs called “Saruk” in the market (and in the literature) were woven in towns in the Arak area other than Saruk, but some “Saruks” were woven in the town of that name.

Saruk rugs are woven on cotton warps and wefts.  In rare cases a cotton warps may be hand-spun, indicating an age estimate of 1850 or earlier.  The knots are almost invariably asymmetrical open to the left, except for Jozan Saruks, that have symmetric knots.  There are two picks of weft between rows of knots, which is the easiest way to distinguish Saruks from the Hammadans woven nearby.  Hammadan rugs almost invariably are seen to have one pick of weft between pile rows (Jozan Hammadans could be one exception).

Another place name that comes up in discussions of Saruk rugs is “Ferahan.”  Ferahan is a plain area north and east of the village of Arak.  This plain includes the town of Saruk.  The Ferahan reference is important because some of the highest quality early rugs woven in Arak were called “Ferahans. 

The literature is contradictory about the designs used on Ferahans.  Some some sources say that they were usually woven in classic repeating patterns, such as the “herati,” while admitting that some medallion designs did occur.   But Cecil Edwards, who saw a few Persian rugs in his time, says Ferahans “were mostly in medallion designs, and on cream or dark blue grounds. ”

There IS agreement that Ferahans” were finer rugs, of excellent quality wool and a thin (i.e. closely cut) pile. They were often woven in “kelleyis”  format (i.e. with a length that is at least twice the width,  but often three or more times the width). 

Colors were also very good in Ferahan rugs, with indigo, several shades of madder red, and more green than is seen in other Persian rugs, especially in their borders.  Eiland reports that there is also “considerable use of yellow and ivory.”   Edwards say that the “rose” ground of later Saruks was “unknown” in these early rugs.  Below is an image of a 19th century Ferahan rug from Eiland and Eiland.

Ferahan1

Early Saruks, which began to be produced in 1880s, resembled Ferahans, but were more tightly woven and heavier, the latter because their warps were more deeply depressed and their pile somewhat longer.  Those Saruks that more closely resembled Ferahans, were labeled “Ferahan Saruks. This designation has some structure and color features, but is mostly a market usage to indicate a high quality Saruk rug. 

The rug below is advertized as a Ferahan Saruk.

FerahanSaruk5Colin mentioned one very high quality, Saruk variety:  the “Mashayejhi.”  This is seen to be the best of all Saruks.  They are manufactured in a workshop of that name in the Arak area.   Often finely done in Herati designs.

In the early 20th century the Saruk name applied to all carpets from western Ferahan area.  Saruk, was a real, identifiable Persian rug variety, and was offered in levels of quality, mostly based on fineness of weave.    These early 20th century Saruks  also often had overall designs, but medallion designs became dominant as Saruk weavers became familiar with cartoon-guided weaving . 
Below are three Saruks said to have been woven in the 1900 to 1910 period.
Saruk1900to1910
Sarukmahal1900
Saruk1900ro1910
During WWI, Iran lost it rug markets, and production was generally limited, but beginning about 1920, it resumed.  The Saruks produced from 1920,- through the 1940s, were a very different product.  Made primarily for the U.S,. market, the “American Saruk,” as it was called, had sturdy, thick pile (1/2 inch) and disconnected, floral designs,with 90% rose grounds; woven at a fineness from 9×10 to 11×12 kn/sq in. 
The “American Saruk” was a complete revision of the earlier Saruks/Ferahans/etc. from the Arak area.  The change replaced the traditional blue field, thin pile and angular medallion designs, with thick pile, disconnected (although somewhat geometric) floral designs and rose/red grounds).  Mostly, they were large carpets, intended for sitting rooms and parlors (10 x 12 and larger). Very often red fields with dark-blue borders.
Below is an “American Saruk,” woven during the 1920s through 1940s period.
AmericanSaruk(Image from the Rug Rag internet site)
There is another distinctive thing to note about the American Saruk.  The predominant reds in them tended toward shades that were close to a salmon color.  American customers did not like these lighter reds, but the Persians continued to weave using them. 
So U.S. dealers very often took new Saruk rugs and chemically stripped out the reds in them (the indigo blues were not affected) and then “painted” the red areas in wine reds that were more attractive to U.S. customers.  A painted rug can often be identified by comparing the reds on its back with those on it front, and by variations in the red dyes on the front not attributable to “abrash.”  One can also sometimes detect places where the “painters” did not entirely stay within the red areas on the pile front that were to be painted.
Here is a brief passage from the Rag Rug site that describes and provides examples of painted Saruks.

What to look for…

To avoid color run or bleeding common with liquids applied to absorbent fibers, the painter usually avoids areas with lighter outlines while he may venture into the safer dark areas. Although the obvious intention is to evenly distribute the pigment, it is not uncommon to find that dye is concentrated heavily in “safe” areas and used sparingly in areas where it can potentially affect detailed outlines.  This is to say, you may notice more of a halo effect around the finer details where the field may show “blotchy” or darker areas where there was higher concentration of color (see Figures 1 and 2).  By peeking through the pile to the knot head you should be able to see both the dyed color as well as the original color with the latter being closer to the knot-head. You should also be able to see an obvious color difference from the back to the front of the carpet (with the original color on the back and the dyed color on the front).  These types of inconsistencies are telltale signs of painting.

American "Painted Sarouk" from Persia  Figure 1: Persian “American” Sarouk (~mid-1940’s)

In the photo above, the green arrow shows an area which has been avoided by the painter, leaving a double outline of the intended lighter beige outline and then the unintentional, inconsistent pink border (original field color exposed). The blue arrow points to an area in which the dye has run into the detail work (undesirable effect). If you look closely you can see several other areas with these types of charming “mistakes.”  This carpet is a full-pile Sarouk which exhibits typical and acceptable painting.  For purposes of the appraisal tool, select “Subtle Painted Sarouk.”  If this carpet were worn, evidence of poor painting or more obvious flaws would appear however for this example, it is not the case.

"Halo" effect on the face of a Persian semi-antique Sarouk  Figure 2: close up of Figure 1

Here we see a close-up of the avoided area and “double outline” or “halo” effect. This will be more obvious on a carpet with worn pile.

The photo below (Figure 3) shows the exact same area on the back of the carpet. Notice that the “mistakes” are not seen at all. This is because the dye has not seeped past the knot-heads.

Reverse side of a painted Sarouk, no difference in color!

More recently there has been a demand in Europe, much of it in Germany, for American painted American Saruk rugs in good condition.  The painted reds are bleached out to make the colors more attractive to European customers.
The painted American Saruks must have been woven with pretty good wool, because they could stand up to these two bleachings, and still be attractive and usable.

Saruk rugs, Colin said,

ColinwithS23

were THE large floor rug to own in the 1920s, 1930s and 1940s.

Saruk rugs are still woven in the areas of Iran what have traditionally produced them.  Here’s what Eiland and Eiland report:

By the 1970s an entirely different type of Sarouk was finding its way to American and European markets.  The designs had become more eclectic, but the quality remained about the same.  Now one may find recent Sarouks, with a variety of designs, ranging from Saraband-like overall boteh design, often on an ivory field, to medallion designs that look like lower grade Kashans.”

Although Colin didn’t treat them, there are quality rugs, in Saruk designs, with reported vegetable dyes, are being woven outside Iran (there has been for a long-time an “Indian Saruk” production).

Here is one produced by a U.S. firm and probably woven in Turkey, but with a traditional Saruk structure.  It has a niche design, described as “Ferahan Saruk.”

WovenLegendsFerhanSarukDesign

Colin listed, briefly, some other Arak varieties:

  • Mushkabad –  a lower quality Saruk; village production, 5×6 kn sq in; bazaar carpets.
  • Mahal – better yarns and colors, denser and thicker pile than Mushkabad, 7×8 kn sq in; mostly bazaar carpets (not to be confused with Chahar Mahal).
  • Lilihan – produced by Armenians relocated by Shah Abbas. Single wefted, close texture, beautifully finished, with a soft, velvety surface. But in the same design as the Saruks.  Many use aniline dyes, for at least some colors.
  • Reihan – village that did not follow Saruk designs, but produced their own, not widely distributed rugs. Single-wefted and almost exclusively with red grounds.
  • Malayar – Symmetric knot; often grouped with Hamadans.
  • Ghiassabad – Later rugs, not widely distributed.

Perhaps the most important (because so frequent) non-Saruk Arak rugs to note are those woven in the “Hamadan” area.

Hamadans are thick, heavy rugs that can resemble Saruks in that respect, but which are quite different.  Almost all Hamadans are woven with a single pick of weft between rows of pile, and with symmetric, rather than, the asymmetric open left knots, that are used in nearly all Saruks.  There were a lot of Saruk rugs imported into the U.S. but likely even more Hamadans.

Next Colin sketched Arak’s history.  It’s not impressive.  You’ve seen those cutesy signs that say “In the year XXXX, nothing happened here.”  Arak seems to merit such a sign.

  • It is a region largely devoid of historical excitement, apparently not attractive enough to invade, and not sufficiently strategically placed to invite much crossing.
  •  Arak’s economy is primarily agricultural
  •  It was sometimes said of pre-1900 rugs – “While Hamadan is the home of the inexpensive rug,  Arak is the home of the cheap rug.”  That was not true of the Saruks made there.
  •  European firms organized the rug businesses in Arak beginning around 1900
  •  There was an explosion of Saruk rug production and export, 1915 to 1930s/1940s
  •  World War I dried up Iran’s European rug markets.  World War II resulted in a similar lessening of US demand.

With this introduction, Colin moved to the rugs in the room.   He gave global credit to those who had loaned rug for his program.

Thanks to the following folks for loaning rugs that were included in this presentation, and without which this presentation would have not been nearly as interesting and comprehensive:

  • Jamshid Agamolla
  • Haydee England
  • Zaki Kalifa
  • Spiro and Carol Manolas
  • Paul Manoukian
  • Wendal Swan
  • Two other unidentified participants.

 Now Colin began to treat the rugs he had brought.  Description of each rug is underneath the first image of it.

 

S1

S1

Comment on S1:

 Manoukian – Ferahan, kelleyis format, herati design; (2) (S1)

    • Pile, Foundation – Wool pile, cotton warp and weft;
    • Knot count and type –  12 x 14 per square inch, asymmetric
    • Selvedge – wrapped
    • Colors – 3 blues, red, white, pink, purple, yellow; blue field
    • Design – overall herati design
    • Border design – many, many borders
    • Other – Kelleyis format
    • Size – 5’ 6”  x 17’

Details of S1:

S1a

S1b

S1b

S1a

S1c

S1d

S1d

S1c

S2

S2

Comment on S2:

  • Zaki – 9 x 12 – what this is really all about (1)(S2)
    • Pile, Foundation – Wool pile, cotton warp and blue weft;
    • Knot count and type – 10 x 12 per square inch, asymmetric
    • Selvedge – wrapped
    • Colors – red field;  dark blue main border; yellow, 2 reds, white, 3 blues
    • Design – Center device, overall floral arrangements; one plane
    • Border design – inner reciprocating, five floral/vine meanders; extra wide guard stripes
    • Other – extraordinary condition for its age
    • Size – 9’ x 12’

Details of S2:

S2a

S2a

S2b

S2c

S2c

S2b

S2d

S2d

S2e

S2h

S2f

S2g

S2g

S2e

 

S3

S3

 

Comments on S3:

  • Pile, Foundation – Wool pile, cotton warp and weft;
  • Knot count and type – 12 x 12 per square inch, asymmetric
  • Selvedge – wrapped
  • Colors – pinkish red field;  dark blue main border; white minor border; yellow, white, 3 blues, pink, red
  • Design – Center floral device, overall floral arrangements; two flower pots above and below center devise
  • Border design – main floral/vine meander; minor connected diamonds; inner reciprocating
  • Other –
  • Size – 2’ x4’

Details of S3:

S3a

S3b

S3b

S3a

S3c

S3x

 

S4

S4

Comment on S4:

  •  Jamsed (3) (S4)
    • Pile, Foundation – Wool pile, cotton warp and blue weft;
    • Knot count and type – 12 x 12 per square inch, asymmetric
    • Selvedge – wrapped
    • Colors – red field;  dark blue main border; red, pink, white, yellow, 2 blues
    • Design – Center diamond floral medallion (yellow, pink, red and 2 blues), overall floral bushes
    • Border design – non-matching minor, floral/vine meander (main and outer)
    • Other – Painted field
    • Size – 2’ 2“ x 4’

    S4a

S3verticalhalf

S4b

S4b

S4c

S3d

S5

S5

Comments on S5:

  •   Jamshid (5) (S5)
    • Pile, Foundation – Wool pile, cotton warp and weft;
    • Knot count and type – 12 x 12 per square inch, asymmetric
    • Selvedge – wrapped
    • Colors – dark red field;  dark blue main border; yellow corners and medallion
    • Design – Center medallion, overall floral arrangements
    • Border design – main floral/vine meander; minor connected diamonds; inner reciprocating
    • Other – pattern continues under borders
    • Size – 2’ x4’

Details of S5:

S5a

S5b

S5b

S5c

S5d

S5d

 

S6

S6

Comments on S6:

  •   Jamshid (6) (S6)
    • Pile, Foundation – Wool pile, cotton warp and weft;
    • Knot count and type – 12 x 12 per square inch, asymmetric
    • Selvedge – wrapped
    • Colors – pink field;  dark blue main border;
    • Design – Center device, overall floral arrangements
    • Border design – main and outer, floral/vine meander; inner reciprocating
    • Other – non-matching inner borders
    • Size – 2’ 7” x 5’

Details of S5:

S6a

S6b

S6a

S6c

S6c

 

S7

S7

Comments on S7:

  • Jamshid  (7) (S7)
    • Pile, Foundation – Wool pile, cotton warp and weft;
    • Knot count and type – 12 x 12 per square inch, asymmetric
    • Selvedge – wrapped
    • Colors – red field;  dark blue main border; white minor; red, pink, white, ivory, 3 blues
    • Design – Center device with sprays on sides, and top/bottom; also sprays at ends of rug
    • Border design – narrow; inner reciprocating
    • Other –
    • Size – 2’ 2” x 4’

Details of S7:

S7a

S7b

S7b

S7a

S7c

S7d

 

S8

S8

Comments on S8:

  • Manolas – painted (10) (S8)
    • Pile, Foundation – Wool pile, cotton warp and weft;
    • Knot count and type – 12 x 12 per square inch, asymmetric
    • Selvedge – wrapped
    • Colors – painted red field;  dark blue main border; 3 blues, 2 pinks, red
    • Design – Center medallion, with flowers out the sides and floral anchors opening up to floral sprays; vase like sprays from rug ends
    • Border design – narrow vine/flower meander (main border); stylized meander minor borders;
    • Other – reciprocating inner border
    • Size – 2’ 1” x 4’

Details of S8:

S8a:

S8c

S8b

S8a

S8c

S8b

S8d

S8d

 

S9

S9

Comments on S9:

  •  Haydee (8) (S9)
    • Pile, Foundation – Wool pile, cotton warp and weft;
    • Knot count and type – 12 x 12 per square inch, asymmetric
    • Selvedge – wrapped
    • Colors – red field;  dark blue main border; 2 blues, red, white, brown/tan
    • Design – Center device, overall floral arrangements
    • Border design – flower and vine meander; reciprocating inner/outer
    • Other – very open design
    • Size – 1’ x 1’

Details of S9:

S9a

S9a

S9b

S9b

 

S10

S10

Comments on S10:

  • Jamshid – painted, perhaps Mahajaran (9) (S10)
    • Pile, Foundation – Wool pile, cotton warp and weft;
    • Knot count and type – 12 x 12 per square inch, asymmetric
    • Selvedge – wrapped
    • Colors – red field;  dark blue main border; red, pink, white, 2 blues, brown/tan
    • Design – Center device, overall floral arrangements
    • Border design – main floral/leaf meander, minor meander with red structures
    • Other –
    • Size – 2’ 3” x 4’

Details of S10:

S10a

S10e

S10b

S10d

S10c

S10c

S10d

S10b

 

S11

S11

Comments on S11:

  •  Jamshid – floral, specious design (11) (S11)
    • Pile, Foundation – Wool pile, cotton warp and blue and white wefts;
    • Knot count and type – 10 x 12 per square inch, asymmetric
    • Selvedge – wrapped
    • Colors – red field;  dark blue main border; true and dark blue, white, pink, red, green
    • Design – small center medallion with 12 petals around solid, yellow center, overall floral arrangements; design continues under borders
    • Border design – flowers and leaves in outer borders; spacious main border; flowers and vines
    • Other – Corner resolution issues at top (main border) and bottom (outer bordrs), repairs at bottom
    • Size – 4’ 3” x 6’ 6”

Details of S11:

S11a

S11a

S11b

S11b

S11c

S11buttedborders

S11d

S11e

 

S12

S12

Comment on S12:

  • Jamshid – Painted red (12) (S12)
    • Pile, Foundation – Wool pile, cotton warp and weft;
    • Knot count and type – 14 x 12 per square inch, asymmetric
    • Selvedge – wrapped
    • Colors – red field;  dark blue main border; pink, green, two blues, white
    • Design – Center – four floral sprays around small center device, overall floral arrangements
    • Border design – pink/white outer reciprocating border, inner flower and vine meander
    • Other – very attractive arrangement of floral sprays over the field
    • Size – 4’ 4” x 6’ 6”

Details of S12L

12a

S12d

S12b

S12a

S12c

S12c

S12d

S12b

S13

S13

Comments on S13:

  • Jamshid – perhaps Ferahan – unusually good workmanship (14) (S13)
    • Pile, Foundation – Wool pile, cotton warp and blue and white wefts;
    • Knot count and type – 10 x 10 per square inch, asymmetric
    • Selvedge – wrapped
    • Colors – red field;  dark blue main border; 2 reds, 3 blues, green, white
    • Design – Center diamond medallion around pink center with 12 pedals; blue corner devices;  floral field
    • Border design –5 borders; geometric meander for main; blue and white dots in red inner border;  flower/vine meander in others
    • Other –
    • Size – 4’ 3”  x 6’ 6”

Details of S13:

S13a

S13a

S13b

S13b

S13c

S13c

S13d

S13d

 

S14

S14

Comments on B14:

  • Jamshid – Jozan (13) (S14)
    • Pile, Foundation – Wool pile, cotton warp and weft;
    • Knot count and type – 10 x 12 per square inch, symmetric
    • Selvedge – wrapped
    • Colors – blue field;  red main border; 3 blues, red, pink, white, 2 browns
    • Design – three concentric center medallion (red, white, pink), anchors, and corner pieces; flowers in field
    • Border design – geometric flower meander (main border), 8 borders overall, reciprocating inner and outer borders
    • Other – substantially more geometric than other Saruks.  See, for example, the flowers in the borders.
    • Size – 4’ 4” x 6’ 8”

Details of B14:

B14a

S14a

S14b

S14b

S14c

S14c

S14d

S14d

S14e

S14e

 

S15

S15

Comments on B15:

  • Wendel  – Jozan (S15)
    • Pile, Foundation – wool pile, cotton warp and weft
    • Design – dark blue field, center flower, asymmetric design
    • Border Design – dark blue, unusually wide, main border, red guard borders
    • Thick, Sculpted pile

Details of B15:

B15a

S15a

S15b

S15c

 

Mahajaran Saruk – more simply drawn, with more space, very thick, nearly always dark blue or red field (but more finely knotted than most Saruks);

Then Colin turned to two or three Mahajaran Sarouks.  These are thickly piled and slightly more tightly woven than any of the other Saruks, but with very open fields.  Heavy, “meaty” rugs, with an unusally lusterous wool pile.

S16

S16

Comments on S16:

  • Jamshid – unusually fine drawing (17) (S16)
    • Pile, Foundation – Wool pile, cotton warp and weft;
    • Knot count and type – 16 x 16 per square inch, asymmetric
    • Selvedge – wrapped
    • Colors – dark blue field;  dark red (unpainted) main border; 3 blues, 2 reds, white, 2 browns
    • Design – four main sprays, plus parts of sprays in corners. note dot at center of rug, on the thin red line between the two large sprays at the top and bottom of the rug.
    • Border design – more narrow main border; geometric meander
    • Other – lustrous wool, like other Mahajaran
    • Size – 4’ 3” x 6’ 6”

Details of S16:

S16a

S16a

S16b

S16f

S16c

S16g

S16d

S16d

S16e

S16jj

 

S17

S17

Comments on S17:

  • Manolas (18) (S17)
    • Pile, Foundation – Wool pile, cotton warp and weft;
    • Knot count and type – 16 x 16 per square inch, asymmetric, open
    • Selvedge – wrapped
    • Colors – red field;  dark blue main border;
    • Design – small center cross; repeating floral devices, with cloud bands separating sections; much more crowded than other two
    • Border design – floral meanders,
    • Other – thinner pile than other two, may not be Mahajaran; note heads on flower pots at the ends of the field; cloud bands in the field
    • Size – 2’ 4” x 9’ 9”

Details of S17:

S17a

S17f

S17b

S17d

S17c

S17e

S17d

S17a

 

S18

S18

Comment on S18:

  • Open field, painted pink in border (16) (S18)
    • Pile, Foundation – Wool pile, cotton warp and weft;
    • Knot count and type – 16 x 16 per square inch, asymmetric
    • Selvedge – wrapped
    • Colors – dark blue field;  painted red main border; 3 blues, pink, red, white, ivory, purple
    • Design – Center floral medallion, overall floral arrangements
    • Border design – wide main border, floral outer border, reciprocating inner border
    • Other – significant difference between light and dark sides of rug; very nice wool
    • Size – 4’ 2” x 6’ 8”

Details of S18:

S18a

S18b

S18b

S18e

B18c

S18c

S18d

S18f

S18e

S18d

 

As we’ve noted Saruks are often large and heavy.  The next piece, a Lilihan, took some combined effort to put up.

S19puttingitupheavy

S19

S19

Comment on S19:

Lilihan – Armenian

  • Manoukian – Square rug (15) (S19)
    • Pile, Foundation – Wool pile, cotton warp and blue and white wefts;
    • Knot count and type –  10 x 10 per square inch, symmetric
    • Selvedge – wrapped
    • Colors – pinkish red field,  dark blue main border, white and light blue minor borders; 2 reds, pink, green, white, 2 blues, yellow, purple
    • Design – compartmented field, subdivided by white and dark blue lines;
    • Border design – two sets of minor borders with floral meander
    • Other – very thick pile; single wefted; not the typical silky pile of many Lilihan
    • Size – 6’ 7”  x 6’ 7”

S19a

S19a

S19b

S19b

S19c

S19c

S19d

S19d

S19e

S19e

s19f

S19f

 

S20

S20

Comment on S20:

Farahan

Traditional design, with center medallion center medallion, white open field, wide main border

  • Jamshid (19) (S20)
    • Pile, Foundation – Wool pile, cotton warp and weft;
    • Knot count and type – 13 x 13 per square inch, asymmetric
    • Selvedge – wrapped
    • Colors – white field;  dark blue medallion and main border; red corners;  red, pink, yellow (some faded), white, two blues, pink (some faded)
    • Design – Center medallion, overall floral arrangements
    • Border design – large main with geometricized flowers and vines; stipped minor and outer border; Xes and blocks in minor border
    • Other – faded yellow, abrash; border resolution (main border) unusual for a Ferahan Sarouk;
    • Size – 3’ 2” x 5’

S20a

S20a

S20b

S20b

The upper part of the dark ground main border changes to brown.  An instance of abrash.  Apparently, the weaver ran out of the dark color.

S20d

S20abrash

S20c

S20c

 

S21

S21

Comment on S21:

  • White medallion and blue field (21) (S21)
    • Pile, Foundation – Wool pile, cotton warp and weft;
    • Knot count and type – 14 x 15 per square inch, asymmetric
    • Selvedge – wrapped
    • Colors – blue field;  white main border and medallion, red corners; red, 2 blues, green, white, pink
    • Design – diamond shaped, lobed medallion (bottom lobe larger than top lobe) with white anchors; center 6 petal flower; four medallion lobes each contain a single floral devise; blue field filled with connected flowers;
    • Border design – 3 flower and vine meander borders, light blue/red striped guard borders; white main border and light blue outer borders
    • Other – unusual outer border; top corner main border;
    • Size – 2’ 7” x 2’ 2”

Details of S21:

S21a

S21a

S21b

S21b

S21c

S21c

 

S22

S22

Comment on S22:

Blue-stepped medallion with botehs.

o Red field also with botehs

o Two main borders, one red, the other white with floral meander; linked diamond inner and outer guard borders.

Details of S22:

S22a

S22a

S22b

S22b

 

S23

S23

Comment on S23:

  • Manoukian – blue medallion and red field (20) (S23)
    • Pile, Foundation – Wool pile, cotton warp and weft;
    • Knot count and type – 14 x 14 per square inch, asymmetric
    • Selvedge – wrapped
    • Colors – red field;  dark blue main border; 2 blues, red, pink, white, green, yellow
    • Design – Center 4 lobed light red medallion, inside light blue medallion, dark blue corners; large 8 lobed anchors with center flower and corner flowers; flowers throughout red field, blue corners and medallions; white and red corner pieces going under the borders; end of red feld appears to be continued in borders (though floral sprays)
    • Border design – minor border a floral meander; inner border on sides only true blue; striped guard stripes; main border has unusual floral sprays which appear to continue the red field pattern.
    • Other – color change from light to dark side, particularly noticeable in true blue inner border and red field; floral sprays in main border
    • Size – 4’ 2” x 6’ 8”

Details of S23:

S23a

S23a

S23b

S23b

S23c

S23c

S23d

S23d

s23e

S23e

 

S24

S24

Comments on S24:

Larger Ferahan

  • All over floral (22) (S24)
    • Pile, Foundation – Wool pile, cotton warp and weft;
    • Knot count and type – 18 x 14 per square inch, asymmetric
    • Selvedge – wrapped
    • Colors – white field;  dark blue main border; red or white minor borders; 3 blues, 2 reds, pink, green, purple, orange, yellow
    • Design – small medallion, surrounded by large flowers; connected flowers all over the field
    • Border design – 5 striped, reciprocating inner, four floral menders, main floral meander with large flowers as central image
    • Other – colors much more dramatic on back
    • Size – 4’ 2” x 6’ 2

Details of S24:

S24a

S24a

S24b

(back)

S24backcomp

S24c(back, detail)

S24h

S24d(back, detail)

S24backdetailc

S24e

S24c

S24f

S24d

S24g

S24g

S24h

S24b

 

S25

S25

Comments on S25:

  • Architectural  with white, yellow, white field (23) (S25)
    • Pile, Foundation – Wool pile, cotton warp and weft;
    • Knot count and type – 18 x 14 per square inch, asymmetric
    • Selvedge – wrapped
    • Colors – white outer fields, yellow inner;  dark red main border;  4 blues, 2 reds, pink, white 2 yellows, green
    • Design – three sections, two sets of columns, center section yellow field, end sections white field, red framing divides the sections of the field
    • Border design – reciprocating inner, many guard stripes, 4 striped borers, floral meanders;
    • Other – white vine in main border attractive
    • Size – 4’ 3” x 6’ 8”

Details of S25:

S25a

S25a

S25b

S25b

S25c

S25c

S25d

S25d

S25e

S25e

S25f

S25f

S25g

S25g

 

S26

S26

Comments on S26:

  • Brought by Wendel
    • Medallion within medallion within medallion within medallion design, with inner square medallion, surrounded by hexagon, surrounded by rectangle, surrounded by hexagon; one of the 2nd or third medallions has anchors on its end
    • Red field, with white hexagon and multiple stacked medallions
    • Main border large, powerfully colored, floral devises, surrounded by smaller flowers

Details of S26:

S26a

S26a

S26b

S26b

S26c

S26c

S26d

S26d

 

S27

S27

Comment on S27:

End with Jamsid Pictorial (27)

  • Jamshid – very fine for a Saruk, pictorial with lions and deer (S26)
    • Pile, Foundation – Wool pile, cotton warp and weft;
    • Knot count and type – 18 x 20 per square inch, asymmetric
    • Selvedge – wrapped
    • Colors – white field;  dark blue medallion and main border, light blue corners; 3 blues, brown, 2 reds, white, tan, pink, grey
    • Design – Center medallion with wide vines and four blue squares; anchors, with trees behind medallion and anchors; many creatures in field, including deer, lions attachking antelopes (or stags), birds and wolves (?)
    • Border design – very wide borders (3), flower and vine meanders
    • Other – abrash; unusual multi dimensional design with trees growing behind the medallion
    • Size – 5’ 3” x 8’ 8”

Details of S27:

S27a

S27a

S27b

S27b

S27c

S27c

S27d

S27d

S27e

S27e


S27f

S27f

S27g

S27g

S27h

S27h

S27i

S27i

S27j

S27k

S27k

S27l

 

Colin answered questions,

Colin2

ColinwithS12

and brought his session to a close.

The usual movement to the front and conversations began.

After1

After2

After5

After8

I want to thank Colin for permitting this virtual version of his program and for his editorial work on it.  Thanks, too, to Amy Rispin, for another useful set of notes.

I trust you have enjoyed Colin’s exploration of aspects of a familiar Persian decorative rug with which at least some of us are not familiar.

Regards,

R. John Howe