Tim and Penny Hays on Kilims of The Former European Territories of the Ottoman Empire

On October 14, 2017, Tim and Penny Hays,

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who are collectors here in the Washington, D.C. area, gave a Rug and Textile Appreciation Morning program here at the Textile Museum in Washington, D.C.

Tim and Penny have focused their collection primarily on Balkan kilims. but have broadened their interests somewhat.  As the title says in this program, and as Wendel Swan

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said in his introduction, they presented and talked about kilims in their collection woven in former European territories of the Ottoman Empire.  They have traveled extensively in these countries and have assiduously explored the history, records of border and ethnic group movements, and other related aspects of the literature, sometimes arranging translation.

The map below presents the countries near the Mediterranean and Black Seas.

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The map below crops out the “countries” in which the kilims, Tim and Penny treated, were variously woven.

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Tim made these introductory remarks:

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“Penny and I appreciate those attending today’s presentation. Balkan kilims are not well known in North America and, in our view, under appreciated. We hope to remedy that a bit today. But we also want to take this opportunity to show how our collecting interests evolved over time.  The first misconception we wanted to address is the common perception of the Balkans as a cultural and political hinterland. This is far from a correct view. The Balkans, especially what today are the nation states of Bulgaria, Macedonia, Albania, and Serbia, were a key part of the Ottoman polity, and the breadbasket of the Empire. This remained true until the mid-19th  Century, when everything began to change. Perhaps the perception of the Balkans as a hinterland comes from our shared Western and Central European cultural heritage.”

Now Tim and Penny moved to treat the kilims for the first country.

The first piece was this monumental constructed saf.

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TP1

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This is a re-constructed Ciprovtsy (NW Bulgaria) saf from the 18th Century. Its a piece we assembled over a period of five years from a group of fragments of  varying sizes.

We know there are only five or six Ciprovtsy safs in existence from the 18th Century period. Although these fragments have not been dated individually, it is possible they may date from the 17th Century.  This particular design and color scheme is among the earliest known for the West Bulgarian weaving group. This group is often attributed as Sarkoy or Manastir in the rug trade. This is not correct. Bulgarian textile art historians characterize such example as of the Constructionist period  (late 17th Century to about 1820). Penny and I have had these fragments conserved and mounted as we believe they might have appeared when new.  

Safs usually comprise three, five, or seven niches in two or more tiers. Because this example is fragmentary, we had it reconstructed as a single-tier. Very careful examination suggests some of the smaller fragments may be from a different original. All the fragments in this piece were obtained from a family of Bulgarian muhajir (returnees to Turkey) whose mutual ancestor was an imam or hoja in Northern Bulgaria.

The detailed images below demonstrate the color scheme common to all the known examples of this class of weaving. They all have brown, indigo blue, green (from overdyed yellow and blue), ochre tones; and in this example, gold in the triangle forms. The weaving is very fine and its likely its was woven for the Ottoman or Rumelian market as a prestige textile.

Its unknown if the original weavers were Orthodox Christians or Bulgarian Muslims, or both.

We are pleased with the way this reconstruction and conservation looks. Our Turkish repairmen did a good job.

Details of TP1.

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A second piece was a departure: the only woven pile piece they showed.

TP2

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This rug, in prayer format, is a later example of the Manastir rug group.

Early pieces of this group were produced in Macedonia and used by Macedonian Turkish families in their homes. When these Macedonian muhajir returned to Turkey, they seem to have retained this particular pile weaving tradition.

We believe this piece is an example produced in Turkey as it has white wool warps.  

But there are characteristics that align with Balkan originals; including multiple weft shots, typical Manastir rug design format, and the eight-lobed blossom motif  The brocaded strips are also common in this group. The pale pistachio green is unusual and suggests a Balkan affinity.

We believe this piece can be dated to the late-19th Century or very early 20th Century. Pile is long and the handle is floppy.

Details of TP2.

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Here is the back of TP2.

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The next piece was difficult to display and to photograph. (Color differences are due to lighting and the operation of three different cameras.)

TP3

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This is a large fragment from a  Pirot (West Bulgarian Group) kilim of the mid-late 19th Century.

The field design is that of multiple trees of life with typical Pirot floral and vegetal motifs. The colors are consistent with the wine red, greens and blues seen in such (Sarkoy) kilims. Although the town of Pirot is now in SE Serbia until 1868 it was part of the Ottoman province of Bulgaria.

Again the weave in this large fragment is fine (almost like shirt cloth). We estimate the original kilim was probably 3.5 M X 3.0 M. 

Pirot produced kilims in many sizes from doilies to large floor coverings or wall hangings.  Pirot production was based in workshops or ‘factories’. Initially the weavers were a mix of Christian and Muslim women, but by the late 1860’s weaving was a Christian occupation. Production was market driven. Pieces as large as 10.5 X 6.5 meters have been produced.

A late example of such a weaving is currently being offered on the Istanbul market.  It appears to be a later Yugoslavian era piece previously used in a public venue.

More details of TP3.

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The next piece was TP4.

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German and Austrian travelers in the Balkans in the mid-19th Century (Kannitz among others) documented a booming trade in Pirot kilims to both Ottoman territory and to Europe. He reported Pirot kilims were so popular that other weaving towns and villages in West Bulgaria produced their own versions of the ever popular Pirot prayer kilim. These were traded by the bale at the annual Pirot trade fair known as the panajir. 

This group of weavings were known as Pirotsko or Pirotskoi . This example may be one of those weavings. In any case, its a nice example of the West Bulgarian weaving genre with period natural dyes and a rather appealing design.  It has a rustic  in-your-face prayer kilim composition. Probably Decorative Period ca 1850-1860.

The wine color ground is striking.  Origin likely Ottoman province of Bulgaria (Rumelia) or SE Serbia.

As the images below show, this kilim has some interesting details-especially at the top of the prayer arch.

 

Details of TP4.

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TP5

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TP5 is an example of a rare group of Romanian kilims from the region of Moldavia (NE Romania on the west bank of the Dniester River). 

Although today’s Romania was not an Ottoman province, the three Principalities (Wallachia, Transylvania, and Moldavia) were Ottoman vassal states with Phanariot Greek Princes appointed by Istanbul. As the Principalities had relatively few Turkish residents and we believe these kilims were woven by Christians.

The sparse motifs are skeletal floral designs (especially tulips).

These weavings are borderless and were meant to be used as wall hangings and viewed on the horizontal.

These pieces are late 19th Century with something of an Art Deco feel. We have not seen other examples of this group outside museums in Romania. Thanks to Stefano Ionesco for his assistance in identifying and properly attributing this kilim.

 

Details of TP5.

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TP6

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TP6 is an early example (18th Century) of a West Bulgarian Chiprovtsy prayer kilim of the Bakamsky/Garabalda design. 

This is one of the earliest type of Balkan kilims known. Along TP1, it is an example of weavings of the Constructionist Period.

The Bakamsky kilims were produced in large numbers in NW Bulgaria with similar designs and two color schemes indigo blue, green, ochre and brown and indigo blue green, brown and red. This piece is an example of the latter. It has interesting zig-zag panels at the top and bottom of the central field, such elaborations can be an indicator of early examples of the genre. This particular piece has old repairs and reweaving in a pale brown tone. 

Typical of most West Bulgarian weavings the kilim is finely woven of wool from Zackel sheep from the Stara Planina Mountains.

The double-headed arrows in the central green field are known as popuks  (butterflies) by local weavers; or as Sarkoy arrows or whirling dervishes by European collectors. The double headed arrows are also seen on Central and South Anatolian kilims. But this kilim, and others like it, were woven by Orthodox Christians for he Ottoman market.

The Bakamsky design was widely used in the 18th Century as far afield as the Principality of Walachia.

Details on TP6.

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TP7

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TP7 is a probably our favorite Manastir prayer kilim. This classic type has either red, yellow or rarely blue, grounds. From Eastern Bulgaria, this piece is slightly larger than normal with  a red ground and rich yellow central field.

With five rows of Anatolian like borders at the top and bottom, and decorated with rows of hacilar amulets in the central field and borders. The slender prayer arch has tendrils sprouting from its sides and a red inverted triangle at top.

Note the few stray blue threads on the lower left side of the field. We believe the blue here is derived from the indigo of the woad plant, and the yellow from Dyers Weld. This kilim probably dates to the third quarter of the 19th Century.

When collectors think of Manastir prayer kilims, they probably envision pieces like this.

Details of TP7.

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TP8

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TP8 is an excellent example of a medium size West Bulgarian kilim. We are not 100% certain of its full attribution, but believe it to be a Pirot or Samokov weaving of the third quarter 19th Century, or earlier.

Wonderful bright colors and fine weave. T he use of green in this piece leads me to think it was Bulgarian in origin. Samokov is in Southwest Bulgaria near the famous Rila Monastery. Reference works on Pirot and West Bulgarian kilims indicate weavings from these two locations are nearly indistinguishable. Such is the case here.

Certainly woven by Orthodox Christians this kilim maintains the 2-1-2 design so common in Islamic weaving. In prayer format, the Bulgarian and Serbian weavers refer to the niche motifs  as mirrors. The tops of all the niches/mirrors have hooks on the upper edges and rams horn elaborations at the apex. the figures in the interior of the kilim are particularly attractive and the color combination is pleasing.

Produced in SW Bulgaria or SE Serbia. Again Zackel sheep wool from the Stara Planina Mountains was used is this attractive kilim.

 

Details of TP8.

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TP9

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TP9 is a Manastir kilim from the Deliorman Region of eastern Bulgaria. It was collected there in the town of Shumen in about 1990.

Although it is in prayer kilim format, visually it is pure landscape with the rows of triangles forming an array of mountain ranges.

The general impression of the piece is rather Anatolian, replete with spandrels at each corner of the central field. The three border strips on either end are reminiscent of pieces we have seen from the Nigde area in Anatolia. Multiple prayer arch figures at the top of the field continue the mountain theme.

Seven colors are used: two reds, white, yellow, blue, black, and green. The green used here is in a tone we particularly associate with Balkan weaving. (previously published as Plate 25 in Stoebe and Mizrahi, Manastir Kilims:In Search of a Trail) One of the reds used is an attractive rose tone we see frequently in South Balkan kilims.  

The kilim dates from the 19th Century.

Details of TP9.

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TP10

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TP10 is an example of a Manastir prayer kilim with its red ground and yellow field.

The top and bottom borders are constructed in an unusual manner. There are four inner border strips which only run the width of the inner field, then a brocade stripe, another full width border strip, and the another brocade stripe. The entire assembly of borders are outlined with a continuous run of dark thread. This may be a characteristic of a particular weaver or village.

We know Manastir prayer kilims were woven for personal use by Muslim women in Eastern Bulgaria, either for devotional use in the home (used to indicate the proper direction for prayer like the qibla in a mosque). or for use by their menfolk when conscripted into the military. Ottoman soldiers were required to have a prayer kilim in their bedroll on campaign.

There are probably only about 150-200 Manastir kilims of all types known to exist-this format is the most common.

The kilim has the normal layout of prayer arch and protective amulets.

Details of TP10.

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TP11

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TP11 is a Manastir kilim collected in the Deliorman Region of Eastern Bulgaria in 1991.  It was previously published as Plate 13 in Stoebe and Mizrahi, Manastir Kilims: In Search of a Trail.

TP13 is one of a small sub-group of Manastir kilims with finger stripes and an elongated oval shaped open field. All the members of this  group of Manastir kilims incorporate narrow stripes of varying colors framing a central field which is open or decorated with amulets. Each of the finger stripes terminates at the central field with a fingernail-like cap.

The previous owners of this kilim read the design to represent a woman’s fingers protectively shielding a womb-like space. Given that Manastir kilims were made by Muslim women for personal use, or for use within the confines of the home, we believe this is a reasonable, if romantic, interpretation of this fascinating design. This example has a central field with rose color tones and with an exuberant scattering of colorful amulets.The finger stripes themselves are pale yellow green, red, brown, and blue. 

There are triple end borders comprised of interlocking crenelated blocks of complementary colors. This 19th Century piece is in a traditional Manastir prayer kilim size of  about 1.8 meter X 1.0 meter. A graphically powerful piece with its own sense of wonder.

As with many of the Manastir kilims in our collection this piece has had a significant amount of repair. When the pieces came from Bulgaria they frequently were stained and worn.

Details of TP11.

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TP12

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TP12 is related to TP11 in both design and color scheme.

The most interesting aspect of this kilim is its size (100 X 60 cm). Its the only example we know of a true Manastir prayer kilim in a reduced size (about 40% the size of a traditional example).

The colors and wool used are consistent with normal size examples. Rose ground, finger stripes enclosing an oblong central field with amulets and triangular stacked stylized prayer arches. The blue dye used may be indigo from woad. The warps are tightly spun dark brown wool. 

This was a recent acquisition and shocked both of us when we first saw it. Although we were originally suspicious of this piece due to possibility of  faking, upon careful inspection it seems legitimate. When we handled this kilim the first time, we noted the wear at the base of the central field. Could this be an indication that it was used as a prayer mat?  For a child or small woman?  

From the Deliorman Region of eastern Bulgaria, second half 19th Century. Finding this piece was a collecting highlight for 2017 and an exciting addition to our understanding of the Manastir weaving tradition.

Details of TP12.

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TP13

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TP13 is a Pilot kilim of the West Bulgarian Group (Sarkoy). 

This is a piece from the Decorative Period (1830-1875) with wonderful colors and a fine weave. The size is about 2.5.M X 2.2 M. In this case we believe this kilim is Serbian production.

The composition is with a squarish central field with a vegetal tree of life pattern with an out compartment of multiple trees of life. The outer border contains multiple niches (or mirrors or houses) which have sprouting branches. The interior of each niche has a floral or vegetal occupant.  Inner borders and the narrow outer border are typical for the West Bulgarian weavings and have comb and figures with three stacked triangles. The overall impression is of a compartmented kilim with well executed construction and design, and saturated colors.

This is obviously the workshop production of skilled weavers. The use of yellow in this kilim suggests it was produced by Orthodox weavers in Serbia rather than Bulgaria. 

This kilim was acquired in Austria directly from a local collector who purchased it in the mid-1990’s from a prominent dealer in Vienna. We enjoy seeing this kilim everyday hanging in our home. We hope you like seeing it here.

Details of TP13.

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TP14

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TP14 is a Vojvodina kilim from the Serbian Banat. Formerly part of the Kingdom of Hungary (until 1918) and before that an Ottoman possession, as the Banat of Temesvar (Banat indicates the territory was governed by a military officer). The region is now divided between Romania and Serbia. 

This kilim was produced in the northern Serbian portion before 1920. The population of this entire is quite diverse and the Serbians living there originated from Kosovo, from whence they fled in the 17th Century. Being part of the Kingdom of Hungary and linked to the Austro-Hungarian Empire since the 18th Century, the Serbs living here were very much influenced by European culture, fashion, and arts. The Vojvodina Serbians were also very conscious of European political ideas and nationalist thinking, this made them leaders in the Serbian independence movement. The mix of European and turkic Albanian influences is reflected in Banat weaving. It is far more European in design and style, and reflects European vernacular weaving trends of the late 19th and early 20th Centuries. 

This piece is a garden design which was very popular at the turn of the last century. Kilims such as this were woven in two strips and then sewn together. They were made as part of a young Serbian woman’s dowry, either by the woman and her female relatives, or by a woman working as a kilim weaving specialist for hire. The general layout of this kilim is consistent with other South Balkan kilims.

The dyes are a mix of natural and synthetics and the pieces use, wool, cotton, flax, or hemp which are grown extensively in the region. This piece, like several others in our collection, was purchased in the Vienna flea market. This example seem to have been used as a bed or table cover, with the lappets attached separately. 

This weaving came with a pair of matching chair back covers (anti-macassars) also with lappets. The weavings from both sides of the Serbian and Romanian border have distinctive features which would make a detailed study and documentation worthwhile.  They all reflect a mix of European and Turkish elements.

Details of TP14.

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TP15

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Were it not for the plain yellow striped kilim ends we would be inclined to ascribe the kilim sbove (203 X 132 cm) to Central Anatolia.

The rich red central field on a golden yellow ground definitely incorporates Anatolian influences.  However, the yellow stripes on the kilim ends associate this piece with East Bulgaria and the Manastir weaving culture.

The recumbent S or dollar sign figures at the top of the red field are also an Anatolian feature. Were they placed in that position to provide directionality for its use in religious settings?  The overall impression of this piece is that it emerged from a rustic setting made by less experienced or less skilled weavers. We believe it was used as a wall hanging ,or perhaps a sofreh.

TP15 was collected in the Deliorman Region in 1991. It has been published previously as Plate 17 in Stoebe and Mizrahi. The previous owners visualized this kilim as a flowing river of lava.

We know of no other Manastir kilims with this design.

Details of TP15.

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Tp16

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TP16  is a Romanian kilim from the Oltenia region of the former Principality of Wallachia (SW Romania).

The piece is very finely woven and crammed with people, birds and other animals, flowers, and folk motifs. It is truly the work of a master weaver, as the kilim is the size of a dish towel.

We have other Oltenian kilims in our collection with these same motifs and figures, but those pieces  are about 2 M X 2 M in size. We believe this example is 19th Century and could have been used as a small table cover or a sampler-like wall hanging.

And although it has suffered somewhat from fading and wear, it remains a weaving tour-de-force (as shown in the detail images). This small beauty teems with life and joy. We have not seen another like it.

Oltenia is just north of the Danube from northern and western Bulgaria and there are obvious borrowings of West Bulgarian (Sarkoy) weaving motifs and formats. The weavers on both sides of this border are Christian (either Orthodox or R0man Catholic).

Details of TP16.

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TP17

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The pieces which follow are definitely not Balkan. In fact they are respectively Syrian and Anatolian. But they demonstrate how collector’s interests can shift or expand into subjects somewhat far afield from the original.

The next three pieces are examples of Syrian weaving workshop production from the late 19th or early 20th Centuries. Our interest in Syrian textiles was initiated during a 2010 tour of Syria led by Stefano Ionesco.

On that tour my classical archaeologist wife and I became familiar with the Arabic, Crusader, Roman, Ottoman, and Hittite culture and history of this part of the Levant. I was able to indulge my long standing interest in learning how the Ottoman and Arab cultures interacted. Of course, I started my exploration in the textile domain.

Replacing the wool weaving culture of the Balkans and Anatolia with with the silk, cotton, and metallic thread culture of the Arab Levant. TP17 is an example of a so-called Aleppo silk, cotton and metallic thread weaving which originally comprised two portieres or draperies; which were repurposed as a bed/table cover or wall hanging.

Although called Aleppo, these silk weavings were likely woven in Hama or Homs Syria from silk threads produced in Lebanon by Armenians.  The market has always called these pieces Aleppo as they came to it in that great ancient city. But they were produced elsewhere. Alas Aleppo has now been largely destroyed in the Syrian civil war.

TP17 has a metallic gold colored ground with inwoven floral or vegetal motifs typical of the Levant. The piece has a faint outline of a prayer arch, so the original intended use may have been as a devotional wall handing.

We believe this weaving probably dates 1880-1920.

Details on TP17.

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TP18

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TP18 is another so-called Aleppo weaving with metallic gold silk and cotton thread.

The motifs in this example are stylized vegetal designs which resemble ears of wheat. Greens and reds predominate in the figures.

The size and shape of this weaving suggests it originally was intended for use as an inlaid table cover.

We suggest this piece dates from the first quarter of the 20th century.

The glittering metallic thread of TP17 and TP18 appeal to he Arab aesthetic of the Levant, but would also have attractive to the European market during period when Eastern and Orientalist designs were in fashion.

 

Details of TP18.

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TP19

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TP19 is a silk and cotton short-sleeve robe (aba) with a kufic inscription reading ‘Masallah’ . The exact meaning of MASHALLAH is “what ALLAH wanted has happened”; and it  is used to indicate something good has happened (past tense).

The robe has blue and reddish gold vertical stripes. Our collection includes only a few pieces of costume, mostly Bulgarian and Macedonian embroideries. However we are very fond of these silk and cotton textiles usually attributed to Aleppo, likely woven in Hama and Homs, and tailored in Damascus, Aleppo, or Gaziantep. 

This piece with its subdued colors and kufic inscription is very attractive and representative of Syrian folk costume.

Details of TP19.

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TP20

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TP20 is further demonstration of how collecting interests and taste evolve over time.

We became interested in Central and Western Anatolia kilims  after collecting Balkan kilims for several years. The weaving aesthetic, the colors,  and the motifs drew us to these textiles because of their obvious connections to Balkan kilims, Manastir kilims in particular. Clearly, the ethnically Turkish residents of the Balkans retained their social and cultural links to Anatolia for over 500 years.

TP20 is a Central Anatolian kilim half with color and design links to Balkan weavings. The kilim dates from the 2nd half of the 1oth Century. It has hacilars, amulets, and double headed arrow motifs all used extensively in Manastir kilims and in kilims from Kosovo, Albania, and Bosnia.

These pieces all are the products of domestic production, not workshop weaving for the market. The animating force behind their design in that of the weaver herself, focused on her particular outlook and needs.

The rich colors used in Anatolia informed the dyeing of Balkan textiles, but there is not complete continuity. Many Balkan weavings incorporate locally available natural dyes instead of those used in Anatolia-particularly the use of yellow from Dyers Weld, the creation of unique green shades from Balkan plants, the use of indigo from woad, and more limited use of madder.

Details of TP20.

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TP21

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Comments on TP21: Even individual collectors can make contributions to our understanding of historical weaving cultures.

Since we began collecting and researching Balkan textiles in 2007, we have wondered about the lack of horse trappings from the region. In the 10 years we have devoted to this genre of weavings we visited dozens of ethnographic museums and ethnography collections in national museums in Bulgaria, Serbia, and Romania. Museum curators informed us the horse trappings such as the ubiquitous khorjin (double saddlebag) were not woven in these areas.

We did acquire ‘shepherd’s bags’, or shoulder bags, in both Bulgaria and Serbia, but these were produced using fabric woven on a draw loom. Kilim woven bags in any format were unknown in collections or literature.

That is until 2015, when one of our Bulgarian contacts, traveling companion, and translator, gifted us TP21 which she had found in her Mother’s home in south eastern Bulgaria.

TP21 is a double saddle bag, of standard dimensions, woven entirely of natural color goat hair. This bag had belonged to her Grandfather who lived in a village of mixed ethnicity. Goat hair production and weaving was practiced on a commercial scale in southern Bulgaria until the 1960’s.

TP21 is now the first documented example of a woven saddlebag in the region.  The construction is natural white and brown goat hair woven in a twill-like format. The bag dates to the first quarter of the 20th Century.

Recent literature research  has also revealed the evidence of the weaving of saddle covers in several areas in southwestern and southern Bulgaria. Such covers were produced for ceremonial purposes or  for bridal ceremonies.  Our most sincere thanks to Ms. Zhecka Dimitrova for enabling us to expand our understanding of Bulgarian weaving culture. Her assistance is invaluable.

Details of TP21.

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TP22

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TP22 is a late example of Albanian kilim weaving from either Kosovo or Albania proper.

This small kilim with its bright synthetic colors and Anatolian derived design shows vernacular weaving from the western Balkans in the second half of the 2oth Century. Synthetic dyes have replaced natural ones throughout the Balkans today, and we still await a natural dye revival such as occurred in Turkey.

As with many of our later examples of Balkan weaving. this piece was found in a flea market in Vienna. Most tourist kilim production in Bulgaria, Serbia, Bosnia, and Romania is of this quality, even though better quality weaving is available.

Details of TP22.

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TP23

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TP23 is Pirot prayer kilim from the end of the Decorative Period (probably around 1900). May well include a mix of natural and synthetic dyes. 

The weaving is typically fine, but it is not as skillfully woven as earlier examples. The weaving of the outer border is a bit stiff and crowded. The central field is stepped niche format with a tree-of-life with floral motifs.

The most interesting element of this kilim are the two confronting fish in the bottom panel. This is a rare, but not unknown decorative element in Pirot kilims. The first Balkan kilim we purchased at the Dealer’s Fair at the 2007 ICOC in Istanbul, had such a pair of fish. The bottom panel had the same confronting fish and elaborated diamond shape as this later example. Perhaps the fish are placed on the kilim to symbolize a wish for plenty?

The green in the field is a typical Balkan feature.

Details of TP23.

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The last piece of the day was this one.

TP24

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Comments on TP24: Collectors always have a favorite piece or type of piece.

We are especially fond of open field kilims from western and north western Anatolia, like this Balikesir example. We don’t know if  TP24 was produced by Yuncu, Karakecili, or some other tribal group in the area between Balikesir and Bergama. But we find it very appealing.

The rich red, spacious open field with a scatter of cicim ‘s’ or double hook shapes and the brocaded stripes ay either end draws us in with a powerful visual impact. This utilitarian kilim was likely used around the weavers house or tent, as a utilitarian cover or for wrapping goods for storage. The intense red of the central field  and the narrow blue stripes provide the necessary visual contrast.

The visual effect of this West Anatolian weaving probably explains why we are drawn so powerfully to the equivalent visual aspect of the yellow, red, and blue open fields of Manastir and other Balkan weavings.

We hope you enjoyed our brief survey of Balkan and other kilims from the Ottoman domain.

Tim and Penny Hays

Details of TP24.

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Penny and Tim took questions and brought their session to a close.

 

 

 

Thanks to Tim and Penny for preparing this interesting and authoritative program and for their considerable help in fashioning this virtual version of it.

Thanks also to Aija Blitte and Michael Kaplan who took and provided some of the photos here.

We do not thank, frequently enough, volunteers who assist in these programs.  For this one there were three.

Marthaa Strikland (above left) and Margaret Hardy (above right).  Paul Durn (below).

I hope you have enjoyed this virtual version of a sound program on textiles from an area a rather neglected until recently.

R. John Howe

 

 

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